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Evaluation of an intelligent armrest using robotics technology in ophthalmic surgery

Poster Details

First Author: C.Okamura JAPAN

Co Author(s):    T. Kojima   Y. Tanaka   A. Hasegawa   S. Tokiwa   K. Ichikawa        

Abstract Details


In ophthalmic surgery performed under a microscope, especially by an inexperienced surgeon, a slight hand tremor can directly affect precision. The Intelligent Armrest Using Robotics Technology (iArmS) was developed as a support robot that follows and automatically fixes the surgeon’s arm at an appropriate position. This study was designed to determine whether the surgeon’s hand tremor, fatigue, and surgical time could be improved by using iArmS in ophthalmic surgery.


Japan Community Health Care Organization Chukyo Hospital, Nagoya, Japan.


Eight ophthalmologists including one resident performed corneal suturing in fresh porcine eyes with or without using iArmS. Marks were placed at 2-mm intervals at the 12 and 6 o’clock positions and suturing was performed at the marks. Surgical suturing time was measured. Five-point questionnaires were used to assess arm fatigue (0: completely disagree - 5: strongly agree). Three questions asked about arm fatigue (I feel dullness in the arms / pain in the hand or finger / stiffness in the neck or shoulder). Questions were based on the Subjective Symptom Check. Subjective hand tremor during suturing was self-assessed.


There was a tendency that the total suturing time at 6 o’clock position with iArmS (17.71±8.52 s) was shorter than without iArmS (19.71±9.86). However, there were no significant differences between the 2 groups (p=0.1493). The mean fatigue score with iArmS (5.27±2.63) was significantly lower than the score without iArmS (6.71±2.50) (p=0.0465). The mean subjective hand tremor score with iArmS (2.14±0.69) was significantly lower than the score without iArmS (3.00±0.82) (p=0.0453).


The iArmS was useful in simulated ophthalmic surgery, probably because the arm was flexibly followed and comfortably fixed at any position. This system may help to stabilize the surgeon’s arm and improve outcomes in ophthalmic surgery.

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