Official ESCRS | European Society of Cataract & Refractive Surgeons


Influence of topical dexamethasone on the cytokine levels of aqueous humour during cataract surgery in diabetic patients

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Session Details

Session Title: Moderated Poster Session: A Bouquet of Topics

Venue: Poster Village: Pod 2

First Author: : N.Artells de Jorge SPAIN

Co Author(s): :    A. Viteri   D. Peña   B. Carrasco   M. Lopez-Galvez   J. Herreras   D. Galarreta        

Abstract Details


To evaluate the levels of cytokines in aqueous humor (AH) in a group of patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) type 2 and non-diabetic patients determined by Fluoroimmunoanalysis Multiplex, obtained during the cataract surgery, and how the treatment with Dexamethasone (DXM) prior to the surgery can modify those levels


Phacoemulsification induces inflammatory and oxidative changes in the anterior chamber (AC), more obvious in diabetic patients. Some reports suggest that administration of DXM prior to surgery reduces the presence of proinflammatory molecules.  Control and diabetic patients without retinopathy were selected to harvest AH to verify these supposed changes


Prospective, interventional clinical study. Eighty eyes of eighty patients were included and treated 2-hourly preoperatively for 2 days. Group 1 (G1): forty control patients were divided into: 20 eyes treated with topical saline (G1.1) and 20 eyes with topical DXM (G1.2). Group 2 (G2): forty eyes from diabetic type2 patients, without retinopathy, were divided in the same way: 20 eyes with saline treatment (G2.1) and 20 eyes with topical DXM (G2.2). AH samples were harvested during surgery and preserved in RNAlater at -80ºC. Levels of cytokines, expressed in concentration, were determined by kit Bio-Plex Pro™ Human Cytokine 27-plex Assay


Levels in pg/ml ±SD of IL-15, IL-17 and GM-CSF/CSF2 were higher in G1 than in G2. IL-15: G1.1=10,69± 2,33 vs G2.1=8,05± 4,12 (p=0,029); G1.2= 11,80± 2,30 vs G2.2=7,30± 4,27 (p<0,001). IL-17: G1.1=11,14± 4,31 vs G2.1=6,95± 3,50 (p=0,006); G1.2=12,91± 2,02 vs G2.2=6,58± 3,91 (p<0,001). GM-CSF/CSF2: G1.1=57,48± 13,50 vs G1.2=67,65± 9,47(p=0,019); G1.1=57,48± 13,50 vs G2.1= 44,48± 8,49 (p=0,004) and G1.2= 67,65± 9,47 vs G2.2=47,22± 14,27(p<0,001). Levels in pg/ml ±SD of MIP-1β were lower in both groups G1.2 and 2.2 compared with G1.1 and G2.1, respectively. G1.1=7,82± 4,06 vs G1.2=4,94± 2,16 (p=0,019), G2.1=11,89± 4,74 vs G2.2= 5,22± 2,61 (p=0,001).


IL-15, IL-17 and GM-CSF/CSF2 presented higher values in AH in non-diabetic patients regardless of whether dexamethasone was applied or not. These 3 cytokines have been recently described as cytokines with certain anti-inflammatory capacity. This can be a way of inflammation after cataract surgery in diabetic patients. MIP-1β underwent changes in its concentrations in patients with or without diabetes, due to the application of DXM. The reduction of its values by the DXM may be one of the mechanisms of action of this drug, when present, in the AC.

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