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Introduction of a digital near-vision optotype for normal and low-sighted adults: development and validation

Poster Details

First Author: E.Panagiotopoulou GREECE

Co Author(s):    E. Chatzimichael   M. Tzinava   A. Konstantinidis   D. Dardabounis   K. Delibasis   G. Labiris     

Abstract Details


Primary objective of this study was to develop and validate a digital near-vision optotype based on the Greek version of the printed MNREAD.


Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, Greece


This was a prospective, comparative study. A computer-based digital near-vision chart was developed (Democritus Digital Acuity Reading Test – DDART), with the exact same fundamental properties of the conventional Greek MNREAD Acuity Chart (MNREAD-GR). Both normally sighted and low-vision subjects participated in the validation process. Text size calibration process and audio recording parameters were analysed. Reading Acuity (RA), Maximum Reading Speed (MRS), Critical Print Size (CPS), and Reading Accessibility Index (ACC) were compared by means of t-test and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs). The test-retest reliability of the DDART was also evaluated.


100 patients were recruited and responded to the optotypes. Non-significant differences were detected for all parameters both for normal (NVG) and low (LVG) vision groups, except for the MRS and ACC in NVG (both p<0.01). NVG participants demonstrated sufficient ICCs that ranged from 0.854 to 0.963, while LVG demonstrated ICCs for RA, ACC, MRS and CPS of 0.986, 0.894, 0.794 and 0.723, respectively. All parameters demonstrated excellent test-retest reliability (ICCs: 0.903 to 0.956).


The development and validation of an advanced digital near-vision optotype for Greek-speaking patients, capable of audio recording and real-time calculation of all reading parameters has been reported. The proposed DDART optotype presented high validity and repeatability suggesting that it can be used both in normal and low-sighted patients.

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