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Prospective study comparing Goldmann and Perkins applanation tonometry

Poster Details

First Author: S.Jain INDIA

Co Author(s):    S. Gupta   K. Srivastava   A. Khandelwal   S. Nair   A. Tara        

Abstract Details


To compare Intraocular pressure using Goldmann applanation tonometry (GAT) and Perkins applanation tonometry ( PAT) in Indian population.This study may be applicable to subsequent large scale surveys in India.


Prospective study carried out at Indira Gandhi Eye Hospital and Research Center(IGEHRC) Lucknow,Uttar Pradesh,India.The hospital research ethics committee was consulted regarding our study design and confirmation was given that formal ethics approval was not required. Study period May 2014 to August 2014.


343 eyes underwent GAT and PAT measured by a single observer with the same Goldmann and Perkins tonometer. The calibration of both instruments was checked at the start of each session. Inclusion criterion-Patients from Glaucoma clinic with clear corneas of any age who cooperated for both GAT and PAT. Exclusion criteria- 1).Patients with physical disability unable to sit for slit lamp GAT. 2) uncooperative patients 3) Excessive blepharospasm and nystagmus. Patients were randomised into two groups. In the first group GAT was used first , in the second group PAT was used first . Data was used in statistical analysis.


Age ranged from 7 to 85 years. IOP ranged from 3 to 50 mmHg. Mean GAT reading was 15.72 mmHg with SD 6.63 mmHg. Mean PAT reading was 13.80 mmHg with SD 6.54 mmHg. Mean difference between GAT and PAT was 1.92 mmHg. z-test was applied. z 3.817639 ; P(Z<=z) One tail 6.74E-0.5 ; z Critical One tail 1.644854 ; P(Z<=z) two tail 0.000135 ; z Critical two tail 1.959964.


Our study shows that IOP measurements of handheld Perkins tonometer are comparable with slit lamp mounted Goldmann tonometer. Besides use in the Out Patient Department, PAT has the advantage of being portable and is thus used for mobile camps which is of great importance in rural India. It is also useful for examination under anaesthesia.

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